Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS)- Working Principle and Advantages

The most advantages of using an Anti-Lock Braking System during a vehicle are that it provides better control over the vehicle and reduces the stopping distance on dry and slippery surfaces. Anti-lock Braking System is an automobile safety system that forestalls the locking of wheels during braking and avoids uncontrolled skidding.

The fashionable Anti-Lock Braking System allows steering during braking which provides more control over the vehicle just in case of sudden braking. Without an ABS, even a knowledgeable driver can fail to stop the skidding of the vehicle on dry and slippery surfaces during sudden braking.

But with an ABS, a traditional person can easily prevent the skidding of the vehicle and get better steering control during braking.

Anti-Lock Braking System

Main Components of ABS System:

1. Speed Sensors

It is wont to calculate the acceleration and deceleration of the wheel. It consists of a roulette and an electromagnetic coil or a magnet and a Hall Effect sensor to get a sign. When the wheel or differentials of the vehicle rotates, it induces a magnetic flux around the sensor. The fluctuation during this magnetic flux generates a voltage within the sensor. This voltage generated sends signals to the controller. With the assistance of the voltage, the controller reads the acceleration and deceleration of the wheel.

2. Valves

Each brake line which is controlled by the ABS features a valve. In some systems, the valve works in three positions.

  • In position one, the valve remains open; and pressure from the brake cylinder skilled it to the brake.
  • In position two, the valve blocks the road and separates the brake from the brake cylinder. And this prevents the further rise of the pressure to the brakes. The valve operates within the second position when the driving force applies the brake harder.
  • In position three, a number of the pressure from the brake is released by the valve.

The clogging of the valve is that the main problem in Anti-Lock Braking System. When the valve is clogged, it becomes difficult for the valve to open, close or change position. When the valve is in inoperable condition, it prevents the system from modulating the valves and controlling pressure to the brakes.

3. Pump

The pump is employed to revive the pressure on the hydraulic brakes after the valve releases the pressure. When the sensor detects wheel slip, it sends signals to release the valve. After the valve releases the pressure supplied from the driving force, it restores the specified amount of pressure to the braking system. The controller modulates (adjusts) the status of the pump to supply the specified amount of pressure and reduce slipping of the wheel.

4. Controller

The controller utilized in the Anti-Lock Braking System is of ECU type. Its main function is to receive information from each wheel speed-sensor and if a wheel loses its traction with the bottom, a sign is shipped to the controller, the controller then limits the brake force (EBD) and activates the ABS modulator. The activated ABS modulator actuates the braking valves on and off and passes the pressure to the brakes.

Working of Anti-lock Braking System (ABS):

The ECU (Electronic Control Unit) reads the signal from each of the speed sensors of the wheel.

As the brakes are suddenly applied by the driving force, this makes the wheel decelerate at a faster rate and should cause the wheel to Lock.

When ECU reads the signal which indicates the rapid decrease within the speed of the wheel, it sends a sign to the valve which makes the valve close, and thus the pressure to the brake pad reduces and prevents the wheel from locking.

The wheel again starts to speed up, again the signal sends to the controller, this point it opens the valve, increasing the pressure to the brake pad and brakes are applied, this again reduces the speed of the wheel and tries to form it stop.


This process of applying brakes and releasing them happens 15 times during a second when a driver suddenly applies the brake harder. thanks to this, the locking of the wheel is prevented, and thus the skidding of the vehicle is eliminated. During braking with the Anti-Lock Braking System, the driving force can steer the vehicle and reduces the danger of a vehicle collision. Read more on Wikipedia.

FAQ’s About ABS

  1. What is the ABS?

    Your ABS, or anti-lock braking system, does exactly what it says; it prevents your car’s wheels from locking up under hard braking, thereby maintaining more control and limiting the probabilities of your car skidding.

  2. Can you drive without ABS?

    Today, almost every automobile comes standard with anti-lock brakes. … The ABS system isn’t critical for the first function of braking, because the car will stop without the ABS engaging. However, without anti-lock brakes, a car won’t have the traction control most drivers expect today.

  3. Why is the ABS light flashing?

    When the red light is on, it could mean that a sensor has gone bad or needs cleaning. It could mean that the module has gone bad. a gentle red light indicates a drag which will affect your safety. A blinking light could also be a warning that your safety may be endangered if you drive.


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